What diagnostic tools are available?
|TOOLS||WHAT IT MEASURES||USED FOR||REFERENCE||METHOD|
|Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, Revised (SCID-D-R)||A 277-item interview that assesses for amnesia, depersonalisation, derealisation, identity confusion, and identity alteration. Measures presence and severity of symptoms.||Diagnosis||Steinberg, 1994, 19994, 1995||Clinician-administered|
|Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS)||A 132-item structured interview that assesses the symptoms of the five DSM-IV dissociative disorders, somatisation disorder, borderline personality disorder, and major depressive disorder. The DDIS also assesses substance abuse, Schneiderian first-rank symptoms, trance, childhood abuse, secondary features of dissociative identity disorder, and supernatural/paranormal experiences. Measures presence of symptoms but not severity.||Diagnosis||Ross, 1997; Ross et al, 1989, 1990||Clinician-administered|
|Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID)||218-item instrument with 168 dissociation items and 50 validity items. Measures 23 dissociative symptoms and six response sets that serve as validity scales.||Diagnosis||Dell, 2006||Self-report (but scored by clinician)|
|Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES)||28-item self-report instrument whose items screen primarily for absorption, imaginative involvement, depersonalization, derealisation, and amnesia.||Screening only||Bernstein & Putnam, 1986, 1993||Self-report|
|Dissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q)||
63-item self-report instrument which measures identity confusion and fragmentation, loss of control, amnesia, and absorption.
Developed in Belgium and The Netherlands, the DIS-Q is more commonly used by European than North American clinicians and researchers.
|Screening only||Vanderlinden, 1993; Vanderlinden, Van Dyck, Vandereycken, Vertommen, & Verkes, 1993||Self-report|
|Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire-20 (SDQ-20)||20-item instrument that uses a 5-point Likert scale to measure somatoform dissociation. The SDQ-20 items address tunnel vision, auditory distancing, muscle contractions, psychogenic blindness, difficulty urinating, insensitivity to pain, psychogenic paralysis, non-epileptic seizures, and so on. A shorter version, the SDQ-5, is composed of five items from the SDQ-20.||Screening only||Nijenhuis, Spinhoven, Van Dyck, Van der Hart, & Vanderlinden, 1996, 1998; Nijenhuis et al, 1999||Self-report|